Benefits of betanin in rotenone-induced Parkinson mice

Metab Brain Dis. 2021 Dec;36(8):2567-2577. doi: 10.1007/s11011-021-00826-0. Epub 2021 Aug 26.


The present study aimed to investigate betanin's neuroprotective effect in mice with rotenone-induced Parkinson-like motor dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Forty male ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: Sham-veh, Rot-veh, Rot-Bet100 and Rot-Bet200. Rotenone at 2.5 mg/kg/48 h was subcutaneous injected in Rot groups, and betanin at 100 and 200 mg/kg/48 h were given alternately with the rotenone injections in Bet groups for 6 weeks. Motor dysfunctions were evaluated weekly using hanging wire and rotarod tests. Brain oxidative status including malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, with neuronal degeneration in the motor cortex, striatum and substantia nigra par compacta were evaluated. The immunohistochemical densities of tyrosine hydroxylase in striatum and in substantia nigra par compacta were also measured. We found that rotenone significantly decreased the time to fall in a hanging wire test after the 4th week and after the rotarod test at the 6th week (p < 0.05). The percentage of neuronal degeneration in substantia nigra par compacta, striatum and motor cortex significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the tyrosine hydroxylase density in substantia nigra par compacta and in striatum significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Betanin at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly prevented substantia nigra par compacta, striatum and motor cortex neuronal degeneration (p < 0.05) and maintained tyrosine hydroxylase density in substantia nigra par compacta and in striatum (p < 0.05). These findings appeared concurrently with improved effects on the time to fall in hanging wire and rotarod tests (p < 0.05). Treatment with betanin significantly prevented increased malondialdehyde levels and boosted reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities (p < 0.05). Betanin exhibits neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced Parkinson in mice regarding both motor dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Betanin's neurohealth benefit relates to its powerful antioxidative property. Therefore, betanin use in neurodegenerative disease is interesting to study.

Keywords: Betanin; Motor cortex; Motor dysfunction; Parkinson’s disease; Striatum; Substantia nigra par compacta.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Betacyanins
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases*
  • Neuroprotective Agents* / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Parkinson Disease*
  • Rotenone / pharmacology
  • Substantia Nigra
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / metabolism


  • Betacyanins
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Rotenone
  • betanin
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase