Mitochondrial Redox Signaling and Oxidative Stress in Kidney Diseases

Biomolecules. 2021 Aug 3;11(8):1144. doi: 10.3390/biom11081144.


Mitochondria are essential organelles in physiology and kidney diseases, because they produce cellular energy required to perform their function. During mitochondrial metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. ROS function as secondary messengers, inducing redox-sensitive post-translational modifications (PTM) in proteins and activating or deactivating different cell signaling pathways. However, in kidney diseases, ROS overproduction causes oxidative stress (OS), inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and altering its metabolism and dynamics. The latter processes are closely related to changes in the cell redox-sensitive signaling pathways, causing inflammation and apoptosis cell death. Although mitochondrial metabolism, ROS production, and OS have been studied in kidney diseases, the role of redox signaling pathways in mitochondria has not been addressed. This review focuses on altering the metabolism and dynamics of mitochondria through the dysregulation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways in kidney diseases.

Keywords: acute kidney injury (AKI); biogenesis; chronic kidney disease (CKD); fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial metabolism; mitochondrial proteins; mitochondrial redox signaling; mitophagy; oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS); tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / genetics
  • Acute Kidney Injury / metabolism*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / pathology
  • Apoptosis / genetics
  • Fatty Acids / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Mitochondria / genetics
  • Mitochondria / metabolism*
  • Mitochondria / pathology
  • Mitochondrial Dynamics
  • Mitophagy / genetics
  • NADPH Oxidase 1 / genetics
  • NADPH Oxidase 1 / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / genetics
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / metabolism*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / pathology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Superoxide Dismutase / genetics
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism


  • Fatty Acids
  • NF-kappa B
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • NADPH Oxidase 1
  • NOX1 protein, human