Jacobsen syndrome or JBS (OMIM #147791) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by a deletion affecting the terminal q region of chromosome 11. The phenotype of patients with JBS is a specific syndromic phenotype predominately associated with hematological alterations. Complete and partial JBS are differentiated depending on which functional and causal genes are haploinsufficient in the patient. We describe the case of a 6-year-old Bulgarian boy in which it was possible to identify all of the major signs and symptoms listed by the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog using the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Extensive blood and marrow tests revealed the existence of thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, specifically due to low levels of T and B cells and low levels of IgM. Genetic analysis using whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/copy number variations (CNVs) microarray hybridization confirmed that the patient had the deletion arr[hg19]11q24.3q25(128,137,532-134,938,470)x1 in heterozygosis. This alteration was considered causal of partial JBS because the essential BSX and NRGN genes were not included, though 30 of the 96 HPO identifiers associated with this OMIM were identified in the patient. The deletion of the FLI-1, ETS1, JAM3 and THYN1 genes was considered to be directly associated with the immunodeficiency exhibited by the patient. Although immunodeficiency is widely accepted as a major sign of JBS, only constipation, bone marrow hypocellularity and recurrent respiratory infections have been included in the HPO as terms used to refer to the immunological defects in JBS. Exhaustive functional analysis and individual monitoring are required and should be mandatory for these patients.
Keywords: 11q deletion; FLI-1 gene; Jacobsen syndrome; immunology.