Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that reduces oxidative stress. When reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are detected, Nrf2 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE), which regulates the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. Nrf2 impairments are observed in the majority of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The classic hallmarks of AD include β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Oxidative stress is observed early in AD and is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 is impaired in AD compared to controls. Increased oxidative stress is associated with impaired memory and synaptic plasticity. The administration of Nrf2 activators reverses memory and synaptic plasticity impairments in rodent models of AD. Therefore, Nrf2 activators are a potential novel therapeutic for neurodegenerative disorders including AD.
Keywords: NF-κB; inflammation; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species.