Clinical Relevance of Helicobacter pylori Infection

J Clin Med. 2021 Aug 6;10(16):3473. doi: 10.3390/jcm10163473.


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative helical, microaerophilic bacterium which colonizes the antrum and body of the stomach, surviving in its harsh environment through mechanisms of acid resistance and colonization factors. It infects approximately 50% of the world population. Although the prevalence of this infection varies from country to country, as well as between different ethnic, social or age groups, it is estimated that about 50% of the human population only carries this microorganism. While H. pylori has been found to play a major etiological and pathogenic role in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, its importance for many types of extra-gastric disease needs to be further investigated. The choice of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection, defined as invasive or non-invasive, depends on the clinical indication as to whether to perform upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Focusing on bacterial eradication, the treatment should be decided locally based on the use of antibiotics and documented antibiotic resistance. The author provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about the clinical aspects of H. pylori infection, especially its diagnostic and therapeutic management.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; MALT-lymphoma; chronic gastritis; gastric cancer; peptic ulcer disease; therapy; vaccines.

Publication types

  • Review