Cardiorenal Syndrome: Emerging Role of Medical Imaging for Clinical Diagnosis and Management

J Pers Med. 2021 Jul 28;11(8):734. doi: 10.3390/jpm11080734.


Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) concerns the interconnection between heart and kidneys in which the dysfunction of one organ leads to abnormalities of the other. The main clinical challenges associated with cardiorenal syndrome are the lack of tools for early diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of therapeutic effects. Ultrasound, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging are increasingly used for clinical management of cardiovascular and renal diseases. In the last decade, rapid development of imaging techniques provides a number of promising biomarkers for functional evaluation and tissue characterization. This review summarizes the applicability as well as the future technological potential of each imaging modality in the assessment of CRS. Furthermore, opportunities for a comprehensive imaging approach for the evaluation of CRS are defined.

Keywords: cardiorenal syndrome; imaging biomarker; tissue characterization.

Publication types

  • Review