Background: The human gut microbiota is a microbial ecosystem contributing to the maintenance of host health with functions related to immune and metabolic aspects. Relations between microbiota and enteric pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa are scarcely investigated. The present study explored gut microbiota composition associated to the presence of common enteric pathogens and commensal microorganisms, e.g., Blastocystis and Entamoeba species, in children and adults from semi-urban and non-urban localities in Côte d'Ivoire.
Methods: Seventy-six stool samples were analyzed for microbiota composition by 16S rRDNA sequencing. The presence of adeno-, entero-, parechoviruses, bacterial and protozoal pathogens, Blastocystis, and commensal Entamoeba species, was analyzed by different molecular assays.
Results: Twelve individuals resulted negative for any tested microorganisms, 64 subjects were positive for one or more microorganisms. Adenovirus, enterovirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), and Blastocystis were frequently detected.
Conclusions: The bacterial composition driven by Prevotellaceae and Ruminococcaceae confirmed the biotype related to the traditional dietary and cooking practices in low-income countries. Clear separation in UniFrac distance in subjects co-harboring Entamoeba hartmanni and Blastocystis was evidenced. Alpha diversity variation in negative control group versus only Blastocystis positive suggested its possible regulatory contribution on intestinal microbiota. Pathogenic bacteria and virus did not affect the positive outcome of co-harbored Blastocystis.
Keywords: Blastocystis; Entamoeba coli; Entamoeba dispar; Entamoeba hartmanni; G. duodenalis; bacteria; biotype; intestinal co-infection; virus.