A System Identification and Implementation of a Soft Sensor for Freeform Bending

Materials (Basel). 2021 Aug 13;14(16):4549. doi: 10.3390/ma14164549.


The primary goal of this study is the formulation of a soft sensor that predicts industrially relevant mechanical properties for freeform bending. This serves as the foundation of a closed-loop property control. It is hypothesized that by inline measurement of hardness, predictions regarding residual hoop stresses, local strength and strain level can be achieved. A novel hardness-based correlation scheme is introduced, which is implemented into an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and allows an inline prediction of local strength, residual hoop stresses and plasticity. Furthermore, the ultrasonic contact impedance (UCI) method is validated as a suitable inline measuring solution.

Keywords: control-loop; extended Kalman filter; freeform bending; hardness; measurement suitability; residual hoop stresses; soft sensor; ultrasonic contact impedance.