The Association of Nighttime Fasting Duration and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Multicase-Control (MCC) Study in Spain

Nutrients. 2021 Jul 30;13(8):2662. doi: 10.3390/nu13082662.


Nighttime fasting has been inconclusively associated with a reduced risk of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate this association in relation to prostate cancer risk. We examined data from 607 prostate cancer cases and 848 population controls who had never worked in night shift work from the Spanish multicase-control (MCC) study, 2008-2013. Through an interview, we collected circadian information on meal timing at mid-age. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with unconditional logistic regression. After controlling for time of breakfast, fasting for more than 11 h overnight (the median duration among controls) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer compared to those fasting for 11 h or less (OR = 0.77, 95% 0.54-1.07). Combining a long nighttime fasting and an early breakfast was associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer compared to a short nighttime fasting and a late breakfast (OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.27-1.04). This study suggests that a prolonged nighttime fasting duration and an early breakfast may be associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Findings should be interpreted cautiously and add to growing evidence on the importance of chrononutrition in relation to cancer risk.

Keywords: breakfast; chrononutrition; circadian rhythms; early time-restricted feeding; prolonged nighttime fasting; prostate cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breakfast
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Fasting*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Shift Work Schedule*
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Young Adult