Plant NIGT1/HRS1/HHO Transcription Factors: Key Regulators with Multiple Roles in Plant Growth, Development, and Stress Responses

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 12;22(16):8685. doi: 10.3390/ijms22168685.


The NIGT1/HRS1/HHO transcription factor (TF) family is a new subfamily of the G2-like TF family in the GARP superfamily and contains two conserved domains: the Myb-DNA binding domain and the hydrophobic and globular domain. Some studies showed that NIGT1/HRS1/HHO TFs are involved in coordinating the absorption and utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus. NIGT1/HRS1/HHO TFs also play an important role in plant growth and development and in the responses to abiotic stresses. This review focuses on recent advances in the structural characteristics of the NIGT1/HRS1/HHO TF family and discusses how the roles and functions of the NIGT1/HRS1/HHO TFs operate in terms of in plant growth, development, and stress responses.

Keywords: G2-like; NIGT1/HRS1/HHO transcription factors; abiotic stress; growth and development; structure and function.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Nitrogen / metabolism
  • Phosphorus / metabolism
  • Plant Development*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Plants / metabolism*
  • Stress, Physiological
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*


  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Phosphorus
  • Nitrogen