Application of Ligature-Induced Periodontitis in Mice to Explore the Molecular Mechanism of Periodontal Disease

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 18;22(16):8900. doi: 10.3390/ijms22168900.


Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of the periodontium. In the last decade, a new murine model of periodontitis has been widely used to simulate alveolar bone resorption and periodontal soft tissue destruction by ligation. Typically, 3-0 to 9-0 silks are selected for ligation around the molars in mice, and significant bone loss and inflammatory infiltration are observed within a week. The ligature-maintained period can vary according to specific aims. We reviewed the findings on the interaction of systemic diseases with periodontitis, periodontal tissue destruction, the immunological and bacteriological responses, and new treatments. In these studies, the activation of osteoclasts, upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors, and excessive immune response have been considered as major factors in periodontal disruption. Multiple genes identified in periodontal tissues partly reflect the complexity of the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The effects of novel treatment methods on periodontitis have also been evaluated in a ligature-induced periodontitis model in mice. This model cannot completely represent all aspects of periodontitis in humans but is considered an effective method for the exploration of its mechanisms. Through this review, we aimed to provide evidence and enlightenment for future studies planning to use this model.

Keywords: immunity; ligature; microbiology; model mouse; periodontal tissue; periodontitis; systemic disease; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Load
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Ligation / adverse effects*
  • Mice
  • Periodontal Diseases / etiology
  • Periodontal Diseases / pathology*
  • Periodontitis / etiology
  • Periodontitis / pathology*