CAR T-Cell Therapy in Hematological Malignancies

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 20;22(16):8996. doi: 10.3390/ijms22168996.


Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells (CAR T-cells) are a promising therapeutic approach in treating hematological malignancies. CAR T-cells represent engineered autologous T-cells, expressing a synthetic CAR, targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) independent of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation. The most common target is CD19 on B-cells, predominantly used for the treatment of lymphoma and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), leading to approval of five different CAR T-cell therapies for clinical application. Despite encouraging clinical results, treatment of other hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains difficult. In this review, we focus especially on CAR T-cell application in different hematological malignancies as well as strategies for overcoming CAR T-cell dysfunction and increasing their efficacy.

Keywords: CAR T-cells; hematological malignancies; leukemia; lymphoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods*
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive / trends*
  • Leukemia / immunology
  • Leukemia / therapy
  • Lymphoma / immunology
  • Lymphoma / therapy
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • Receptors, Chimeric Antigen / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • Receptors, Chimeric Antigen