Arteriovenous Malformations-Current Understanding of the Pathogenesis with Implications for Treatment

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 21;22(16):9037. doi: 10.3390/ijms22169037.


Arteriovenous malformations are a vascular anomaly typically present at birth, characterized by an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein (bypassing the capillaries). These high flow lesions can vary in size and location. Therapeutic approaches are limited, and AVMs can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we describe our current understanding of the pathogenesis of arteriovenous malformations based on preclinical and clinical findings. We discuss past and present accomplishments and challenges in the field and identify research gaps that need to be filled for the successful development of therapeutic strategies in the future.

Keywords: arteriovenous malformations; clinical trials; endothelial cell; hereditary hemorrhagic; pathogenesis; repurposed drugs; telangiectasia; vascular anomalies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arteries / pathology
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / genetics*
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Receptor Cross-Talk
  • Veins / pathology