2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure

Eur Heart J. 2021 Sep 21;42(36):3599-3726. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab368.
No abstract available

Keywords: advanced heart failure; transplantation; Guidelines; acute heart failure; arrhythmias; cardiac resynchronization therapy; comorbidities; diagnosis; ejection fraction; heart failure; hospitalization; mechanical circulatory support; multidisciplinary management; natriuretic peptides; neuro-hormonal antagonists; pharmacotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Heart Failure* / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Stroke Volume