Objective: This paper was written to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on the efficacy of lanthanum carbonate (LC) and calcium carbonate (CC) and the risk of cardiovascular calcification on hemodialysis (HD) patients.
Materials and methods: The Cochrane library, PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI), WANGFANG DATA, and Sino Med were searched between January 1946 and December 2020. The literature with respect to the randomized controlled clinical trial comparing LC and CC in HD patients was selected. The main outcomes include coronary artery calcification score (CACS), cardiovascular events, and serum phosphorus (mmol/L). The statistical program used for meta-analysis was Stata V14.0.
Results: Of 388 original titles screened, data was extracted from 9 studies (625 participants). LC can significantly reduce the progression of coronary artery calcification compared to CC (standardized mean deviation (SMD) = -0.59, 95% CI: -0.94 to -0.25, p < 0.01). The LC group had lower serum phosphorus levels (SMD = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.33 to -0.36, p < 0.01), lower serum calcium levels (SMD = -1.03, 95% CI: -1.83 to -0.23, p = 0.012), and lower fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) level (SMD = -4.80, 95% CI: -7.96 to -1.64, p = 0.003) than the CC group. The Egger regression test of CACS showed no potential publication bias (p = 0.72).
Conclusion: Compared with CC, LC can significantly delay the process of coronary artery calcification, and at the same time reduce patients' serum phosphate, serum calcium, and FGF-23. Therefore, we recommend LC as a phosphorus-lowering drug for HD patients.