Efficacy of Ketogenic Diets on Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review

Curr Diab Rep. 2021 Aug 27;21(9):32. doi: 10.1007/s11892-021-01399-z.


To assess the pleiotropic effects of ketogenic diets (KD) on glucose control, changes in medication, and weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and to evaluate its practical feasibility RECENT FINDINGS: KD results in improved HbA1c already after 3 weeks, and the effect seems to persist for at least 1 year. This is associated with a reduction in glucose-lowering medications. The weight loss observed after a short time period seems to be maintained with a long-term diet. Adequate support (supportive psychological counseling, enhancing positive affectivity, reinforcing mindful eating) is necessary to achieve a benefit and to assure adherence. Despite the documented decrease in HbA1, a definitive causal effect of KD remains to be proven. KD should be performed under strict medical supervision. Future research should clarify how compliance can be maximized and how ketosis can be optimally monitored.

Keywords: Atkins diet; Glucose intolerance; Keto; Ketogenic diet; Type 2 diabetes; Very-low-carb diet.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
  • Diet, Ketogenic*
  • Humans
  • Ketosis*
  • Weight Loss