The thyroid gland plays a significant role in the metabolism and proliferation of blood cells; hematological disorders are frequently observed in patients with thyroid disorders, and the most frequent problem is anemia. The main objective of this research work is to evaluate the prevalence and types of thyroid dysfunction and their association with anemia in different gender stratified by age in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. Four years of data from July 2016 to July 2020 for 9992 study subjects were collected. Statistical analysis was performed based on thyroid disorder and anemia stratified by gender and age subgroup. The mean age of the study subject was 43.4 ± 15.8 years, and females constituted 61.7% of cases. Thyroid dysfunction was observed in 49.76% (4973), and subclinical hypothyroidism was the most prevalent type (3922/9992), followed by primary hypothyroidism (530/9992). Females have a significantly higher overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction than males (p < 0.05). Anemia was detected in 1344 females and 465 males with a thyroid disorder, and also, the prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.05), compared to the normal thyroid group. Thyroid disorders are a common problem in our population, more prevalent in females than males, with the peak age of above 30 years, and are associated with an increased prevalence of anemia.
Keywords: anemia; hematological profile; microcytic hypochromic anemia; normocytic normochromic anemia; subclinical hypothyroidism; thyroid dysfunction.