Safety and Efficacy Assessments to Take Antioxidants in Glioblastoma Therapy: From In Vitro Experiences to Animal and Clinical Studies

Neurochem Int. 2021 Nov;150:105168. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105168. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is considered one of the most common malignant brain tumors, occurring as over 15% of all primary central nervous system and brain neoplasms. The unique and standard treatment option towards GBM involves the combination of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). However, due to the aggressive nature and heterogeneity of GBMs, they remained difficult to treat. Recent findings from preclinical studies have revealed that disruption of the redox balance via using either oxidative or anti-oxidative agents in GBM presented an effective and promising therapeutic approach. A limited number of clinical trials substantially encouraged their concomitant use with RT or CT. Thus, treatment of GBMs may benefit from natural or synthetic antioxidative compounds as novel therapeutics. Despite the presence of variegated in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on safety and efficacy issues of these promising therapeutics, nowadays their translation to clinics is far from applicability due to several challenges. In this review, we briefly introduce the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems as well as potential signaling pathways related to the pathogenesis of GBM with a special interest in antioxidant mechanisms. In addition, we describe the advantages and limitations of antioxidant supplementation in GBM cases or disease models as well as growing challenges for GBM therapies with antioxidants in the future.

Keywords: Anti-glioblastoma therapy; Antioxidants; Clinical trials; Dietary supplements; Glioblastoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage*
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Brain Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / methods*
  • Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Glioblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Glioblastoma / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Antioxidants