Lack of Association between Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Zika Antibodies among Pregnant Women in Thailand between 1997 and 2015

Viruses. 2021 Jul 22;13(8):1423. doi: 10.3390/v13081423.


Data about Zika virus infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Southeast Asia are scarce. We conducted an unmatched case-control study of Zika virus (ZIKV) serology in pregnant women enrolled in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal prevention trials between 1997 and 2015 in Thailand. Case and control groups included women with and without adverse pregnancy outcomes. Plasma samples collected during the last trimester of pregnancy were tested for ZIKV IgG/IgM and Dengue IgG/IgM (Euroimmun, AG, Germany). Case newborn plasma samples were tested for ZIKV IgM and ZIKV RNA (Viasure, Spain). The case group included women with stillbirth (n = 22) or whose infants had microcephaly (n = 4), a head circumference below the first percentile (n = 14), neurological disorders (n = 36), or had died within 10 days after birth (n = 11). No women in the case group were positive for ZIKV IgM, and none of their live-born neonates were positive for ZIKV IgM or ZIKV RNA. The overall ZIKV IgG prevalence was 29%, 24% in the case and 34% in the control groups (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.13), while the dengue IgG seroprevalence was 90%. Neither neonatal ZIKV infections nor ZIKV-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were observed in these women with HIV and/or HBV during the 18-year study period.

Keywords: Thailand; Zika virus; Zika virus serology; adverse pregnancy outcomes; dengue virus serology; neonates; pregnant women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Dengue Virus / immunology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Microcephaly / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy Outcome*
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Stillbirth
  • Thailand / epidemiology
  • Zika Virus / immunology*
  • Zika Virus Infection / epidemiology*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M