The Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 within the Dog Population in Croatia: Host Factors and Clinical Outcome

Viruses. 2021 Jul 22;13(8):1430. doi: 10.3390/v13081430.


Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.

Keywords: Croatia; SARS-CoV-2; animals; clinical picture; dogs; epidemiology; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • COVID-19 / blood
  • COVID-19 / epidemiology
  • COVID-19 / veterinary*
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / blood
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / epidemiology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / veterinary*
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / virology
  • Croatia / epidemiology
  • Dog Diseases / blood
  • Dog Diseases / diagnosis
  • Dog Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Dog Diseases / virology
  • Dogs
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pandemics
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2 / immunology
  • SARS-CoV-2 / isolation & purification*
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies


  • Antibodies, Viral