Spermiation: Insights from Studies on the Adjudin Model

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021:1288:241-254. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-77779-1_12.


Spermatogenesis is comprised of a series of cellular events that lead to the generation of haploid sperm. These events include self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC), proliferation of spermatogonia by mitosis, differentiation of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, generation of haploid spermatids via meiosis I/II, and spermiogenesis. Spermiogenesis consists of a series of morphological events in which spermatids are being transported across the apical compartment of the seminiferous epithelium while maturing into spermatozoa, which include condensation of the genetic materials, biogenesis of acrosome, packaging of the mitocondria into the mid-piece, and elongation of the sperm tail. However, the biology of spermiation remains poorly understood. In this review, we provide in-depth analysis based on the use of bioinformatics tools and an animal model that mimics spermiation through treatment of adult rats with adjudin, a non-hormonal male contraceptive known to induce extensive germ cell exfoliation across the seminiferous epithelium, but nost notably elongating/elongated spermatids. These analyses have shed insightful information regaridng the biology of spermiation.

Keywords: Adjudin; Germ cell development; Spermatogenesis; Spermiogenesis; Testis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Hydrazines
  • Indazoles
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Seminiferous Epithelium
  • Spermatids*
  • Spermatogenesis*
  • Spermatogonia


  • 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)indazole-3-carbohydrazide
  • Hydrazines
  • Indazoles