Uncovering cancer vulnerabilities by machine learning prediction of synthetic lethality

Mol Cancer. 2021 Aug 28;20(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s12943-021-01405-8.

Abstract

Background: Synthetic lethality describes a genetic interaction between two perturbations, leading to cell death, whereas neither event alone has a significant effect on cell viability. This concept can be exploited to specifically target tumor cells. CRISPR viability screens have been widely employed to identify cancer vulnerabilities. However, an approach to systematically infer genetic interactions from viability screens is missing.

Methods: Here we describe PAn-canceR Inferred Synthetic lethalities (PARIS), a machine learning approach to identify cancer vulnerabilities. PARIS predicts synthetic lethal (SL) interactions by combining CRISPR viability screens with genomics and transcriptomics data across hundreds of cancer cell lines profiled within the Cancer Dependency Map.

Results: Using PARIS, we predicted 15 high confidence SL interactions within 549 DNA damage repair (DDR) genes. We show experimental validation of an SL interaction between the tumor suppressor CDKN2A, thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP) and the thymidylate synthase (TYMS), which may allow stratifying patients for treatment with TYMS inhibitors. Using genome-wide mapping of SL interactions for DDR genes, we unraveled a dependency between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 and the BRCA-interacting protein BRIP1. Our results suggest BRIP1 as a potential therapeutic target in ~ 30% of all tumors, which express low levels of ALDH2.

Conclusions: PARIS is an unbiased, scalable and easy to adapt platform to identify SL interactions that should aid in improving cancer therapy with increased availability of cancer genomics data.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Computational Biology / methods*
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genomics / methods
  • Humans
  • Machine Learning*
  • Models, Biological*
  • Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Synthetic Lethal Mutations*