Coffee consumption, health benefits and side effects: a narrative review and update for dietitians and nutritionists

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2023;63(9):1238-1261. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1963207. Epub 2021 Aug 28.


Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide; however, its impact on health outcomes and adverse effects is not fully understood. The current review aims to establish an update about the benefits of coffee consumption on health outcomes highlighting its side effects, and finally coming up with an attempt to provide some recommendations on its doses. A literature review using the PubMed/Medline database was carried out and the data were summarized by applying a narrative approach using the available evidence based on the literature. The main findings were the following: first, coffee may contribute to the prevention of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; second, coffee consumption seems to be associated with a lower incidence of several types of cancer and with a reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality; finally, the consumption of up to 400 mg/day (1-4 cups per day) of caffeine is safe. However, the time gap between coffee consumption and some drugs should be taken into account in order to avoid interaction. However, most of the data were based on cross-sectional or/and observational studies highlighting an association of coffee intake and health outcomes; thus, randomized controlled studies are needed in order to identify a causality link.

Keywords: Coffee; caffeine; metabolic syndrome; nutritionist; obesity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Beverages
  • Coffee / adverse effects
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Nutritionists*
  • Risk Factors


  • Coffee