Ananas comosus (L) Merrill (pineapple) fruit peel extract demonstrates antimalarial, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models

J Ethnopharmacol. 2022 Jan 10;282:114576. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114576. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Abstract

Ethnopharmacology relevance: Pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel is a major waste in pineapple canning industry and it is reported to be used in ethnomedicine as a component of herbal remedies for malarial management. This study aimed to evaluate the antimalarial, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Ananas comosus peel extract (PEAC).

Methods: Ananas comosus peel was extracted with 80% methanol. PEAC (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was investigated for antimalarial effect using Peter's 4-day suppressive test (4-DST) model in mice. Antinociceptive activity of PEAC was investigated in hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the lipopolysaccharides-induced sickness behavior in mice and carrageenan-induced air pouch in rats' models.

Results: PEAC could not significantly (p > 0.05) suppressed parasitemia level at 7-day post-infection in 4-DST. PEAC (400 mg/kg) mildly prolongs survival of infected mice up till day 21. PEAC demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive activity by increasing latency to jump on the hot plate, reduced number of writhings in acetic acid test and reduced paw licking time in 2nd phase of formalin test. PEAC significantly reduced anxiogenic and depressive-like symptoms of sickness behavior in LPS-injected mice. PEAC demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced air pouch experiment by reducing exudates formation, inflammatory cell counts, and nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels.

Conclusion: Ananas comosus peel extract demonstrated mild antimalarial activity but significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties probably mediated via inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Keywords: Antimalarial; Antinociceptive; Carrageenan; Lipopolysaccharides; Pineapple peel.