Apoptosis is induced by sub-acute exposure to 3-MCPD and glycidol on Wistar Albino rat brain cells

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2021 Oct;87:103735. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2021.103735. Epub 2021 Aug 27.


3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its toxic metabolite glycidol were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as belonging to group 2B and 2A for humans. This study aimed to determine the sub-acute toxicity of these agents. Rats were exposed to 3-MCPD at 0.87 and 10 mg/kg/bw and glycidol (2,4 and 37,5 mg/kg/bw) for 90 days. miR-21 gene expression levels significantly decreased in all group's cerebellar tissues compared with control. Exposure to 10 mg/kg/bw 3-MCPD showed significant increases in PTEN in brain as compared to control group. The Akt gen expressions were significantly decreased in 3-MCPD and glycidol groups when compared to control group brains. Additionally, Caspase 3 and AIF immunopositivity significantly increased in 3-MCPD high dose and glycidol high dose groups in cerebellum granular layers compared to control. The results of the present study conclude that 3-MCPD and glycidol can induce apoptosis in rat brain tissue.

Keywords: 3-MCPD; Glycidol; PTEN-Akt pathway; miR-21.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Apoptosis Inducing Factor / metabolism
  • Brain / cytology
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Chemosterilants / toxicity*
  • Epoxy Compounds / toxicity*
  • Male
  • MicroRNAs
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics
  • Propanols / toxicity*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics
  • Rats, Wistar
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin / toxicity*


  • Aifm1 protein, rat
  • Apoptosis Inducing Factor
  • Chemosterilants
  • Epoxy Compounds
  • MicroRNAs
  • Propanols
  • mirn21 microRNA, rat
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin
  • Akt1 protein, rat
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • Pten protein, rat
  • Casp3 protein, rat
  • Caspase 3
  • glycidol