Validation of the professional self-identity questionnaire for medical students during clinical practice in Japan

Int J Med Educ. 2021 Aug 31;12:160-165. doi: 10.5116/ijme.610d.104b.

Abstract

Objectives: To validate the Professional Self Identity Questionnaire (PSIQ) for medical students during clinical practice.

Methods: We conducted a single-year longitudinal questionnaire study using the PSIQ. The PSIQ rates the nine items of "teamwork", "communication", "conducting assessment", "cultural awareness", "ethical awareness", "using records", "dealing with emergencies", "reflection", and "teaching" on a scale of 1-7 points. The study participants consisted of 118 fifth- and sixth-grade medical students who completed a mandatory 4-week clinical practice in a community-based medical education (CBME) curriculum. The data were collected before and after the CBME curriculum and after clinical practice at the time of graduation. To validate the internal structure of the PSIQ, we calculated Cronbach's alpha in the three phases. Additionally, to assess construct validity, we analyzed the trends and differences in each of the nine items of the PSIQ using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). We also showed the differences in effect size before and after the CBME curriculum.

Results: The data of 105 medical students were analyzed. Cronbach's alpha in the three phases was 0.932, 0.936, and 0.939, respectively. PSIQ scores increased progressively for all items, and the F-test for repeated measures ANOVA of nine items' average score across the three phases showed a significant difference F(2,208) = 63.59, p<0.001. The effect size for professional identity of cultural awareness before and after the CBME curriculum was 0.67, or medium.

Conclusions: We validated the PSIQ for medical students during clinical practice. Reflecting on professional identity may provide an opportunity for meaningful feedback on readiness to become a doctor.

Keywords: clinical-clerkship; community-based medical education; cultural responsiveness; curriculum evaluation; japan; professional identity.