Pharmacogenomic testing to support prescribing in primary care: a structured review of implementation models

Pharmacogenomics. 2021 Aug;22(12):761-776. doi: 10.2217/pgs-2021-0032. Epub 2021 Sep 1.


The application of pharmacogenomics could meaningfully contribute toward medicines optimization within primary care. This review identified 13 studies describing eight implementation models utilizing a multi-gene pharmacogenomic panel within a primary care or community setting. These were small feasibility studies (n <200). They demonstrated importance and feasibility of pre-test counseling, the role of the pharmacist, data integration into the electronic medical record and point-of-care clinical decision support systems (CDSS). Findings were considered alongside existing primary care prescribing practices and implementation frameworks to demonstrate how issues may be addressed by existing nationalized healthcare and primary care infrastructure. Development of point-of-care CDSS should be prioritized; establishing clinical leadership, education programs, defining practitioner roles and responsibilities and addressing commissioning issues will also be crucial.

Keywords: community; implementation; medicines optimization; pharmacogenomics; prescribing; primary care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Decision Support Systems, Clinical / standards
  • Decision Support Systems, Clinical / trends*
  • Drug Prescriptions* / standards
  • Humans
  • Pharmacists / standards
  • Pharmacists / trends
  • Pharmacogenetics / methods
  • Pharmacogenetics / standards
  • Pharmacogenetics / trends
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing / methods*
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing / standards
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing / trends
  • Primary Health Care / methods*
  • Primary Health Care / standards
  • Primary Health Care / trends