Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent for Chagas disease, a neglected parasitic disease in Latin America. Gene transcription control governs the eukaryotic cell replication but is absent in trypanosomatids; thus, it must be replaced by posttranscriptional regulatory events. We investigated the entrance into the T. cruzi replicative cycle using ribosome profiling and proteomics on G1/S epimastigote cultures synchronized with hydroxyurea. We identified 1,784 translationally regulated genes (change > 2, false-discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05) and 653 differentially expressed proteins (change > 1.5, FDR < 0.05), respectively. A major translational remodeling accompanied by an extensive proteome change is found, while the transcriptome remains largely unperturbed at the replicative entrance of the cell cycle. The differentially expressed genes comprise specific cell cycle processes, confirming previous findings while revealing candidate cell cycle regulators that undergo previously unnoticed translational regulation. Clusters of genes showing a coordinated regulation at translation and protein abundance share related biological functions such as cytoskeleton organization and mitochondrial metabolism; thus, they may represent posttranscriptional regulons. The translatome and proteome of the coregulated clusters change in both coupled and uncoupled directions, suggesting that complex cross talk between the two processes is required to achieve adequate protein levels of different regulons. This is the first simultaneous assessment of the transcriptome, translatome, and proteome of trypanosomatids, which represent a paradigm for the absence of transcriptional control. The findings suggest that gene expression chronology along the T. cruzi cell cycle is controlled mainly by translatome and proteome changes coordinated using different mechanisms for specific gene groups. IMPORTANCE Trypanosoma cruzi is an ancient eukaryotic unicellular parasite causing Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness that affects 6 to 7 million people, mostly in Latin America. The antiparasitic treatments for the disease have incomplete efficacy and adverse reactions; thus, improved drugs are needed. We study the mechanisms governing the replication of the parasite, aiming to find differences with the human host, valuable for the development of parasite-specific antiproliferative drugs. Transcriptional regulation is essential for replication in most eukaryotes, but in trypanosomatids, it must be replaced by subsequent gene regulation steps since they lack transcription initiation control. We identified the genome-wide remodeling of mRNA translation and protein abundance during the entrance to the replicative phase of the cell cycle. We found that translation is strongly regulated, causing variation in protein levels of specific cell cycle processes, representing the first simultaneous study of the translatome and proteome in trypanosomatids.
Keywords: Chagas’ disease; Trypanosoma; Trypanosoma cruzi; cell cycle; cell proliferation; genomics; mass spectrometry; posttranscription; proteomics; regulon; ribosome profiling; translational control.