HIV-1 entry into host cells leads to one of the following three alternative fates: (1) HIV-1 elimination by restriction factors, (2) establishment of HIV-1 latency, or (3) active viral replication in target cells. Here, we report the development of an improved system for monitoring HIV-1 fate at single-cell and population levels and show the diverse applications of this system to study specific aspects of HIV-1 fate in different cell types and under different environments. An analysis of the transcriptome of infected, primary CD4+ T cells that support alternative fates of HIV-1 identifies differential gene expression signatures in these cells. Small molecules are able to selectively target cells that support viral replication with no significant effect on viral latency. In addition, HIV-1 fate varies in different tissues following infection of humanized mice in vivo. Altogether, these studies indicate that intra- and extra-cellular environments contribute to the fate of HIV-1 infection.
Keywords: HIV-1 fate; HIV-1 latency; humanized mouse model; transcriptomic analysis.
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