An unusual case of acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) complicating dengue fever

Drug Discov Ther. 2021 Sep 22;15(4):214-217. doi: 10.5582/ddt.2021.01063. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Abstract

Neurological complications are increasingly being reported in dengue fever, and the dengue virus is now recognized as a neurotrophic virus. The damage caused by inflammatory cytokines in the febrile phase and molecular mimicry in the recovery phase is responsible for these neurological manifestations. We report such an unusual neurological complication occurring in a 27-year-old female in the recovery phase of dengue fever, who developed an acute onset of ascending symmetric weakness of all four limbs without any sensory, autonomic, cerebellar, or cranial nerve involvement. She was diagnosed as having an acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) based on a nerve conduction study (NCS) showing axonal neuropathy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) showing root enhancement at the region of the cauda equina. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and showed full recovery from symptoms with treatment. Our case highlights the importance of being aware of such rare neurological complications in dengue fever. Early detection and rapid initiation of treatment can lead to the complete reversal of neurological deficits.

Keywords: Guillain-Barre syndrome; demyelination; dengue fever; intravenous immunoglobulin; nerve conduction study.