Abnormal levels of mitochondrial proteins in plasma neuronal extracellular vesicles in major depressive disorder

Mol Psychiatry. 2021 Dec;26(12):7355-7362. doi: 10.1038/s41380-021-01268-x. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Abstract

To characterize neuronal mitochondrial abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD), functional mitochondrial proteins (MPs) extracted from enriched plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) of MDD participants (n = 20) were quantified before and after eight weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Pretreatment baseline NDEV levels of the transcriptional type 2 nuclear respiratory factor (NRF2) which controls mitochondrial biogenesis and many anti-oxidant gene responses, regulators of diverse neuronal mitochondrial functions cyclophilin D (CYPD) and mitofusin-2 (MFN2), leucine zipper EF-hand containing transmembrane 1 protein (LETM1) component of a calcium channel/calcium channel enhancer, mitochondrial tethering proteins syntaphilin (SNPH) and myosin VI (MY06), inner membrane electron transport complexes I (subunit 6) and III (subunit 10), the penultimate enzyme of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) generation nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylytransferase 2 (NMNAT2), and neuronal mitochondrial metabolic regulatory and protective factors humanin and mitochondrial open-reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) all were significantly lower than those of NDEVs from matched controls (n = 10), whereas those of pro-neurodegenerative NADase Sterile Alpha and TIR motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) were higher. The baseline NDEV levels of transcription factor A mitochondrial (TFAM) and the transcriptional master-regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis PPAR γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) showed no differences between MDD participants and controls. Several of these potential biomarker proteins showed substantially different changes in untreated MDD than those we reported in untreated first-episode psychosis. NDEV levels of MPs of all functional classes, except complex I-6, NRF2 and PGC-1α were normalized in MDD participants who responded to SSRI therapy (n = 10) but not in those who failed to respond (n = 10) by psychiatric evaluation. If larger studies validate NDEV MP abnormalities, they may become useful biomarkers and identify new drug targets.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Depressive Disorder, Major* / metabolism
  • Extracellular Vesicles* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / genetics
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha / genetics
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha / metabolism

Substances

  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • LETM1 protein, human
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha
  • SNPH protein, human