Objectives: The treatment for COVID-19 often utilizes immune-modulating drugs. These drugs are also used in immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). We performed a systematic review about seroconversion after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IMIDs and impact of various drugs on seroconversion rates.
Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies reporting seroconversion rates following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IMIDs. We calculated the pooled seroconversion rates after a single or two doses of vaccination, pooled seroconversion rates in patients with specific IMIDs, and rates in patients on various drugs/drug classes.
Results: Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. The pooled seroconversion rates after two doses of mRNA vaccination were higher (83.1, 95%CI: 74.9-89.0, I2 = 90%) as compared to a single dose (69.3, 52.4-82.3, I2 = 95%). The odds of seroconversion were lower in IMIDs as compared to healthy controls (0.05, 0.02-0.13, I2 = 21%). The seroconversion rates in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (95.2, 95%CI: 92.6-96.9, I2 = 0%), spondyloarthropathy (95.6, 95% CI: 83.4-98.9, I2 = 35%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (90.7, 95%CI: 85.4-94.2, I2 = 0%) were higher as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (79.5, 95% CI: 65.1-88.9, I2 = 85%), and vasculitis (70.5, 95% CI: 52.9-83.5, I2 = 51%). The seroconversion rates following double dose of mRNA were excellent (>90%) in those on anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF), anti-integrin (vedolizumab), anti-IL 17 (secukinumab), anti-IL6 (Tocilizumab) and anti-IL12/23 (Ustekinumab) therapies but attenuated (<70%) in patients on anti-CD20 (Rituximab) or anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA-4) therapies (Abatacept). The seroconversion rates were good (70-90%) with steroids, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil and leflunomide. Combination of anti-TNF with immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-meracptopurine, methotrexate) resulted in an attenuated vaccine response as compared to anti-TNF monotherapy.
Conclusion: Seroconversion rates after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are lower in patients with IMIDs. Certain therapies (anti-TNF, anti-integrin, anti-IL 17, anti-IL6, anti-12/23) do not impact seroconversion rates while others (anti-CD20, anti-CTLA-4) result in poorer responses.
Keywords: Adenoviral associated; COVID-19; Immunization; Inflammatory bowel disease; Rheumatoid arthritis; Spondyloarthropathy; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Vasculitis.
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