Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, more than half of surviving infants born extremely preterm (EP; < 28 weeks' gestation) develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Prevention of BPD is critical because of its associated mortality and morbidity, including adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and respiratory health in later childhood and beyond. The respiratory care of EP infants begins before birth, then continues in the delivery room and throughout the primary hospitalization. This chapter will review the evidence for interventions after birth that might improve outcomes for infants born EP, including the timing of umbilical cord clamping, strategies to avoid or minimize exposure to mechanical ventilation, modes of mechanical ventilation and non-invasive respiratory support, oxygen saturation targets, postnatal corticosteroids and other adjunct therapies.
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