ISHLT consensus document on lung transplantation in patients with connective tissue disease: Part III: Pharmacology, medical and surgical management of post-transplant extrapulmonary conditions statements

J Heart Lung Transplant. 2021 Nov;40(11):1279-1300. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2021.07.013. Epub 2021 Jul 31.


Patients with connective tissues disease (CTD) are often on immunomodulatory agents before lung transplantation (LTx). Till now, there's no consensus on the safety of using these agents perioperative and post-transplant. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation-supported consensus document on LTx in patients with CTD addresses the risk and contraindications of perioperative and post-transplant management of the biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARD), kinase inhibitor DMARD, and biologic agents used for LTx candidates with underlying CTD, and the recommendations and management of non-gastrointestinal extrapulmonary manifestations, and esophageal disorders by medical and surgical approaches for CTD transplant recipients.

Keywords: biologic disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs; connective tissue diseases; consensus statement; esophageal disorders post-transplant medical and surgical management; feedings; lung transplantation.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Connective Tissue Diseases / surgery*
  • Consensus*
  • Disease Management*
  • Graft Rejection / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulating Agents / pharmacology*
  • Lung Transplantation / standards*
  • Postoperative Care / standards*


  • Immunomodulating Agents