GLUT1 is a major glucose facilitator expressed ubiquitously among tissues. Upregulation of its expression plays an important role in the development of many types of cancer and metabolic diseases. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an α-arrestin that acts as an adaptor for GLUT1 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It regulates cellular glucose uptake in response to both intracellular and extracellular signals via its control on GLUT1-4. In order to understand the interaction between GLUT1 and TXNIP, we generated GLUT1 lipid nanodiscs and carried out isothermal titration calorimetry and single-particle electron microscopy experiments. We found that GLUT1 lipid nanodiscs and TXNIP interact in a 1:1 ratio and that this interaction requires phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2).
Keywords: Electron microscopy; GLUT1; Glucose metabolism; Nanodiscs; PI(4,5)P(2); TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein).
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