Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become one of the most common liver diseases and is still without approved pharmacotherapy. Lifestyle interventions using exercise and diet change remain the current treatment of choice and even a small weight loss (5-7%) can already have a beneficial effect on NASH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of exercise and diet interventions remain largely elusive, and it is unclear whether they exert their health effects via similar or different pathways.
Methods: Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice received a high fat diet (HFD) for 30 weeks to establish a severe state of NASH/fibrosis with simultaneous atherosclerosis development. Groups of mice were then either left untreated (control group) or were treated for 20 weeks with exercise (running wheel), diet change (switch to a low fat chow diet) or the combination thereof. The liver and distant organs including heart, white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscle were histologically examined. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of liver, WAT and muscle revealed the organ-specific effects of exercise and diet and defined the underlying pathways.
Results: Exercise and dietary change significantly reduced body weight, fat mass, adipocyte size and improved myosteatosis and muscle function with additive effects of combination treatment. WAT inflammation was significantly improved by diet change, tended to be reduced with exercise, and combination therapy had no additive effect. Hepatic steatosis and inflammation were almost fully reversed by exercise and diet change, while hepatic fibrosis tended to be improved with exercise and was significantly improved with diet change. Additive effects for the combination therapy were shown for liver steatosis and associated liver lipids, and atherosclerosis, but not for hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Pathway analysis revealed complementary effects on metabolic pathways and lipid handling processes, thereby substantiating the added value of combined lifestyle treatment.
Conclusions: Exercise, diet change and the combination thereof can reverse established NASH/fibrosis in obese Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice. In addition, the lifestyle interventions had beneficial effects on atherosclerosis, WAT inflammation and muscle function. For steatosis and other parameters related to adiposity or lipid metabolism, exercise and dietary change affected more distinct pathways that acted complementary when the interventions were combined resulting in an additive effect for the combination therapy on important endpoints including NASH and atherosclerosis. For inflammation, exercise and diet change shared several underlying pathways resulting in a net similar effect when the interventions were combined.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Fibrosis; Lifestyle interventions; Muscle-liver axis; NAFLD; WAT-liver axis.
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.