Attenuation of spatial memory in 5xFAD mice by targeting cholinesterases, oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling using 2-(hydroxyl-(2-nitrophenyl)methyl)cyclopentanone

Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Nov:100:108083. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108083. Epub 2021 Aug 31.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is classified pathologically as a progressive neurological disorder associated with memory decline. The study was designed to assess the underlying molecular signaling involved in the neuroprotective effect of the 2-(hydroxyl-(2-nitrophenyl)methyl)cyclopentanone (2NCP) as a novel therapeutic agent for AD. In this connection, in vitro cholinesterases inhibitory and antioxidant activities were investigated. In vivo studies were carried out on a well-known 5xFAD mice model in different behavioural models such as light/dark box,balance beam, rotarod, elevated plus maze (EPM),novel object recognition (NOR), paddling Y-maze, and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Hippocampus (HC) and frontal cortex (FC) homogenates were examined for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and catalase. Further, we examined the expression of inflammatory cytokines and Nrf2 in the HC and FC through RT-PCR. Computational studies were conducted to predict the binding mode of the 2NCP with target sites of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cholinesterases. The findings of in vitro assays revealed that the IC50 values of the 2NCP against AChE and BChE were 17 and 23 µg/ml respectively. DPPH antioxidant assay displayed an IC50 value for the 2NCP was 62 µg/ml. Whereas, theex vivo study depicted that the activities of AChE and BChEwere significantly reduced. Moreover, free radicals load, GSH level, catalase and GST activities were significantly declined. Furthermore, in vivostudies showed that the 2NCP treated animals exhibited gradual memory improvement and improved motor functions. RT-PCR study revealed that mRNA levels of the inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) were significantly reduced, while the expression of antioxidant Nrf2 was significantly increased.The molecular docking studies further confirmed that the 2NCP showed excellent binding affinities for NF-κB and cholinesterases. Taken together, the 2NCP improves spatial memory and learning, short- and long-term memory,markedly inhibits cholinesterases, reduced neuroinflammation, and mitigated oxidative stress in the 5xFAD mice; hence the 2NCP may be a potential candidate for the management of AD.

Keywords: 2-(hydroxyl-(2-nitrophenyl)methyl)cyclopentanone; Alzheimer disease; Antioxidants; Cholinesterase; Cognitive deficits; Neuroinflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholinesterase / blood
  • Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy*
  • Alzheimer Disease / enzymology
  • Alzheimer Disease / genetics
  • Alzheimer Disease / physiopathology
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects*
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / enzymology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Butyrylcholinesterase / metabolism*
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • GPI-Linked Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • GPI-Linked Proteins / blood
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases / enzymology
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases / genetics
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases / physiopathology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction
  • Spatial Memory / drug effects*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Ache protein, mouse
  • Butyrylcholinesterase