Knowing the unknowns in high risk multiple myeloma

Blood Rev. 2022 Jan:51:100887. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2021.100887. Epub 2021 Aug 28.


High risk multiple myeloma (HRMM) continues to portend worse outcomes despite the many advances in anti-myeloma therapeutics. The optimal approach to treatment is not clearly defined on account of the variable definitions of HRMM and the paucity of studies dedicated to the treatment of HRMM. In this review, we use a case-based approach to review the definitions of HRMM, and evaluate the evidence for induction, stem cell transplantation, and post-transplant therapy approaches for HRMM.

Keywords: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation; Autologous stem cell transplantation; High risk multiple myeloma; Measurable residual disease; Multiple myeloma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Multiple Myeloma* / diagnosis
  • Multiple Myeloma* / etiology
  • Multiple Myeloma* / therapy
  • Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Transplantation, Autologous