Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Stem cell source or HLA disparity may exert a significant impact on the overall survival (OS) after the development of aGVHD. In order to clarify this point, we performed a retrospective analysis using a database of the Japan Society for HCT. We analyzed the clinical outcomes of 10,035 patients who developed grade II-IV aGVHD. The median age of the patients was 48 years. The probability of 2-year OS after the onset of grade II-IV aGVHD in the study cohort was 54.1%. The multivariate analysis showed that the HLA ≥2-loci mismatched related donor and HLA 1-locus mismatched unrelated donor were significantly associated with an inferior OS after grade II-IV aGVHD. In a subgroup analysis, peripheral blood stem cells and HLA disparity were associated with an inferior OS in patients who received related or unrelated HCT. Thus, the clinical outcome after grade II-IV aGVHD significantly varied as per the combination of the presence of HLA disparity and stem cell source. Further research using other databases is necessary to confirm our findings.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.