A recurrent de novo ATP5F1A substitution associated with neonatal complex V deficiency

Eur J Hum Genet. 2021 Sep 6. doi: 10.1038/s41431-021-00956-0. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Mitochondrial disorders are a heterogeneous group of rare, degenerative multisystem disorders affecting the cell's core bioenergetic and signalling functions. Spontaneous improvement is rare. We describe a novel neonatal-onset mitochondriopathy in three infants with failure to thrive, hyperlactatemia, hyperammonemia, and apparent clinical resolution before 18 months. Exome sequencing showed all three probands to be identically heterozygous for a recurrent de novo substitution, c.620G>A [p.(Arg207His)] in ATP5F1A, encoding the α-subunit of complex V. Patient-derived fibroblasts exhibited multiple deficits in complex V function and expression in vitro. Structural modelling predicts the observed substitution to create an abnormal region of negative charge on ATP5F1A's β-subunit-interacting surface, adjacent to the nearby β subunit's active site. This disorder, which presents with life-threatening neonatal manifestations, appears to follow a remitting course; the long-term prognosis remains unknown.