Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infections among Lymphadenitis Patients in Northwest Ethiopia

Ethiop J Health Sci. 2021 May;31(3):653-662. doi: 10.4314/ejhs.v31i3.23.


Background: Tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are among the major health problems in Ethiopia. This study assessed the proportion of tuberculosis lymphadenitis (TBLN), HIV infection and their co-infection among TBLN presumptive individuals at the selected hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was carried out. Data on demographic and clinical variables were collected with standardized questionnaire. Microbiological culture was done on specimen obtained by fine needle aspirates. The HIV status was determined by rapid anti-HIV antibody test. Data was entered and scrutinized using SPSS version 20 statistical packages. A stepwise logistic regression model was used. The result was considered as statistically significant at P<0. 05.

Results: A total of 381 lymphadenitis patients were included in the study. The overall prevalence of TBLN and HIV were at 250(65.6%) and 9(2.4%), respectively and their co-infection was at 6(2.4%). Based on the cytological examination, 301(79.0%) of them were diagnosed as TBLN. The age group, (P=0.01) and residency, (P=0.01) were found significantly associated with TBLN. Similarly, unsafe sex was also statistically significant for HIV infection (P=0.007).

Conclusion: Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is the leading cause of TB and lymphadenitis in the region. However, TBLN-HIV coinfection was promisingly low. High rate of discrepancy was noticed between cytological and culture results. Hence, the TBLN diagnostic criteria shall pursue revision.

Keywords: Ethiopia; Human immunodeficiency virus; Tuberculosis; lymphadenitis.

MeSH terms

  • Coinfection* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethiopia / epidemiology
  • HIV
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Lymphadenitis* / epidemiology
  • Lymphadenitis* / etiology
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis*
  • Tuberculosis, Lymph Node* / epidemiology