Stomatal development and genetic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L

Heliyon. 2021 Aug 27;7(8):e07889. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07889. eCollection 2021 Aug.


Stomata are turgor-driven microscopic epidermal valves of land plants. The controlled opening and closing of the valves are essential for regulating the gas exchange and minimizing the water loss and eventually regulating the internal temperatures. Stomata are also a major site of pathogen/microbe entry and plant defense system. Maintaining proper stomatal density, distribution, and development are pivotal for plant survival. Arabidopsis is a model plant to study molecular basis including signaling pathways, transcription factors, and key components for the growth and development of specific organs as well as the whole plant. It has intensively been studied and found out the driver for the development and patterning of stomata. In this review, we have explained how the MAPK signaling cascade is controlled by TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) receptor-like protein and the Erecta (ER) receptor-like kinase family. We have also summarized how this MAPK cascade affects primary transcriptional regulators to finally activate the main three basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) principal transcription factors, which are required for the development and patterning of stomata. Moreover, regulatory activity and cellular connections of polar proteins and environmentally mediated ligand-receptor interactions in the stomatal developmental pathways have extensively been discussed in this review.

Keywords: Arabidopsis; Guard cell; Protodermal cell; Stomata; Too many mouths.

Publication types

  • Review