Functional Cupcake for Preventing Vitamin A Deficiency and Correlated Anemia and Oxidative Stress

Pak J Biol Sci. 2021 Jan;24(3):366-373. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2021.366.373.


<b>Background and Objective:</b> Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) is a critical public health problem that affects the health of kids worldwide and may induce anemia and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to pre-clinically assess the effect of a cupcake, prepared to be served for primary school children, on vitamin A deficiency and related anemia and oxidative stress in rats. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Flour of flash orange sweet potatoes, as a rich source of pro-vitamin A, was used to prepare the cupcake. The chemical composition, amino acids and sensory evaluation of the cupcake were done. The biological evaluation was carried out using 18 weaning rats in three groups (control group, vitamin A-deficient group and vitamin A-deficient group fed on a diet fortified with 20% of the prepared cupcake for two months). <b>Results:</b> The results indicated the high value of vitamin A in the prepared cupcake. Excellent sensory characteristics were noticed. Feeding on the VDA diet fortified with the prepared cupcake suppressed the reduction in Retinol-Binding Protein (RBP), hemoglobin and iron. Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) increased in the VAD group. Also, feeding on the prepared cupcake suppressed the reduction in Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and the elevation of Malondialdehyde (MDA). <b>Conclusion:</b> It can be suggested that the prepared cupcake is promising in preventing of vitamin A deficiency and related anemia and oxidative stress. Thus, the prepared cupcake may be efficient for children to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

Keywords: Cupcake; anemia; oxidative stress; pro-vitamin A; sweet potatoes; vitamin A and iron; vitamin A deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anemia / diet therapy*
  • Anemia / physiopathology
  • Animals
  • Dietary Supplements / standards
  • Dietary Supplements / statistics & numerical data
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hemoglobins / analysis
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Vitamin A / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin A / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / diet therapy*
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / physiopathology


  • Hemoglobins
  • Vitamin A