Congenital alacrima

Orbit. 2022 Apr;41(2):162-169. doi: 10.1080/01676830.2021.1974057. Epub 2021 Sep 5.


The congenital absence of tear production or alacrima is a distinctively unusual clinical sign that harbors a wide variety of etiologies. While alacrima can be only isolated to the lacrimal system, it is more often associated with progressive multisystem involvement from underlying genetic disorders. Recognizing the subtle ocular signs in these diseases will promote a timely diagnosis and management before potential life-threatening consequences occur. Hence, the current article will review the ophthalmological findings, systemic manifestations, genetic associations, and differential diagnosis of congenital alacrima.

Keywords: Congenital alacrima; dry eye; lacrimal gland; tear deficiency.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dry Eye Syndromes* / etiology
  • Eye Diseases, Hereditary* / complications
  • Eye Diseases, Hereditary* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases* / complications
  • Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases* / genetics
  • Lacrimal Apparatus* / abnormalities
  • Tears

Supplementary concepts

  • Alacrima