Background: Candidemia and Candida-associated catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are the significant cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with malignancy.
Methods: A retrospective analysis including all pediatric hematologic/oncologic malignancies patients with CRBSIs treated in Dr. Behçet Uz Children Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital between the period of 2009 and 2020.
Results: During the study period, 53 children with CRBSIs associated with Candida species were included. The most common malignancy was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (45.3%) and acute myeloid leukemia (15.1%). A total of 56 Candida isolates were present including non-albicans Candida species (80.4%) and Candida albicans (19.6%). The most common isolated Candida species was Candida parapsilosis (42.9%) and followed by C. albicans (19.6%). The ratio of azole prophylaxis was significantly higher in patients with the non-albicans Candida group (P=0.031). Candida-related endocarditis (vegetation) was present in 2 (3.8%) patients, and the overall rate of hepatosplenic candidiasis was 3.8%. Seven days Candida attributable mortality was 7.5% (4 patients) and 30 days Candida attributable mortality was 11.3% (6 patients). The Candida species responsible for the Candida-related deaths were as following: Candida tropicalis (n=3), C. parapsilosis (n=2), and C. lusitanae (n=1).
Conclusion: In pediatric cancer patients with Candida-associated CRBSIs, evaluation of the patient for organ involvement including liver and spleen ultrasonography and cardiac involvement with echocardiography are essential regardless of the patients' clinical picture.
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