Green Synthesis of Copper Nano-Drug and Its Dental Application upon Periodontal Disease-Causing Microorganisms

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Dec 28;31(12):1656-1666. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2106.06008.

Abstract

Dental pathogens lead to chronic diseases like periodontitis, which causes loss of teeth. Here, we examined the plausible antibacterial efficacy of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) synthesized using Cupressus macrocarpa extract (CME) against periodontitis-causing bacteria. The antimicrobial properties of CME-CuNPs were then assessed against oral microbes (M. luteus. B. subtilis, P. aerioginosa) that cause periodontal disease and were identified using morphological/ biochemical analysis, and 16S-rRNA techniques. The CME-CuNPs were characterized, and accordingly, the peak found at 577 nm using UV-Vis spectrometer showed the formation of stable CME-CuNPs. Also, the results revealed the formation of spherical and oblong monodispersed CME-CuNPs with sizes ranged from 11.3 to 22.4 nm. The FTIR analysis suggested that the CME contains reducing agents that consequently had a role in Cu reduction and CME-CuNP formation. Furthermore, the CME-CuNPs exhibited potent antimicrobial efficacy against different isolates which was superior to the reported values in literature. The antibacterial efficacy of CME-CuNPs on oral bacteria was compared to the synergistic solution of clindamycin with CME-CuNPs. The solution exhibited a superior capacity to prevent bacterial growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) of CME-CuNPs with clindamycin recorded against the selected periodontal disease-causing microorganisms were observed between the range of 2.6-3.6 μg/ml, 4-5 μg/ml and 0.312-0.5, respectively. Finally, the synergistic antimicrobial efficacy exhibited by CME-CuNPs with clindamycin against the tested strains could be useful for the future development of more effective treatments to control dental diseases.

Keywords: Antibiotic; antimicrobial activity; copper nanoparticles; periodontal disease.