Background: Reduction in the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) serves as a measure of patient safety and quality improvement. Cesarean birth (CB) accounts for 31.9% of all childbirths in the United States. However, our understanding of SSI prevention bundles predominantly stems from gynecological and colorectal surgeries. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a standardized perioperative bundle designed to reduce SSI in CBs.
Methods: All CB patients at Flushing Hospital Medical Center from 2017 to 2019 were included in a retrospective analysis. Patients were divided into three groups based on the timing of intervention: prebundle/control, transition, and postbundle. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were summarized using descriptive statistics. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the association between bundle group and SSI, considering variables different between groups at baseline (P < 0.10).
Results: Two thousand eight hundred and seventy-five CBs were performed: 1086 in prebundle, 812 in transition, and 977 in postbundle phase. In the prebundle phase, 25 CBs (2.3%) were complicated by SSIs; in the transition phase, 10 (1.2%) had SSIs; and in the postbundle phase, 7 (0.7%; P = 0.009) had SSIs. In a logistic regression model, only use of the CB bundle (OR 0.26 [95% CI 0.07-0.94]; P = 0.04), rupture of membranes (0.29 [0.09-0.87]; P = 0.03), and operating room time (1.02 [1.01-1.04]; P = 0.01) were significant in prediction of SSI. SSI postbundle was significantly reduced from prebundle (0.04).
Conclusions: Thus, introduction of a hospital-wide perioperative bundle significantly reduced SSI rates, and should be developed as a mainstay of CB surgical care.
Keywords: antibiotic protocol; antimicrobial dressing; cesarean birth; intraoperative warming; perioperative bundle; standardized fascial closure tray; surgical care; surgical prep; surgical site infection.
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