Alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and subsequent risk of renal cell carcinoma: The JPHC study

Cancer Sci. 2021 Dec;112(12):5068-5077. doi: 10.1111/cas.15129. Epub 2021 Oct 19.


The effects of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence have not been well-investigated in Asian populations. Here, we evaluated these effects in a large Japanese prospective cohort. We collected data on eligible participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, and undertook multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of RCC incidence. We identified 340 cases (230 men and 110 women) among the 105 663 eligible participants (50 262 men and 55 741 women), who were followed for an average of 19.1 years, with a cumulative total of 2 020 364 person-years. A slightly inverse but nonsignificant association was observed between alcohol drinking and RCC incidence. In contrast, the risk of RCC was increased in those with heavy smoking (≥40 pack-years) when men and women were combined (HR 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25). We identified no significant association between alcohol consumption and RCC incidence. In contrast, heavy smoking (≥40 pack-years) was associated with a significant increase in incidence.

Keywords: Alcohol; Renal cell carcinoma; Smoking; cohort study; epidemiology.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / chemically induced
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tobacco Smoking / adverse effects
  • Tobacco Smoking / epidemiology*