Association of the functionally significant polymorphisms of the MMP9 gene with H. pylori-positive gastric ulcer in the Caucasian population of Central Russia

PLoS One. 2021 Sep 7;16(9):e0257060. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257060. eCollection 2021.


Background and purpose: The study analyzed the association of functionally significant polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) genes with the development of gastric ulcer (GU) in Caucasians from Central Russia.

Methods: The 781 participants, including 434 patients with GU (196 Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive and 238 H. pylori-negative) and 347 controls (all H. pylori-negative) were recruited for the study. Ten SNPs of the MMP1 (rs1799750), MMP2 (rs243865), MMP3 (rs679620), MMP8 (rs1940475), and MMP9 (rs3918242, rs3918249, rs3787268, rs17576, rs17577, and rs2250889) genes were considered for association with GU using multiple logistic regression. The SNPs associated with GU and loci linked (r2≥0.8) to them were analyzed in silico for their functional assignments.

Results: The SNPs of the MMP9 gene were associated with H. pylori-positive GU: alleles C of rs3918249 (OR = 2.02, pperm = 0.008) and A of rs3787268 (OR = 1.60-1.82, pperm ≤ 0.016), and eight haplotypes of all studied MMP9 gene SNPs (OR = 1.85-2.04, pperm ≤ 0.016) increased risk for H. pylori-positive GU. None of the analyzed SNPs was independently associated with GU and H. pylori-negative GU. Two haplotypes of the MMP9 gene (contributed by rs3918242, rs3918249, rs17576, and rs3787268) increased risk for GU (OR = 1.62-1.65, pperm ≤ 0.006). Six loci of the MMP9 gene, which are associated with H. pylori-positive GU, and 65 SNPs linked to them manifest significant epigenetic effects, have pronounced eQTL (17 genes) and sQTL (6 genes) values.

Conclusion: SNPs of the MMP9 were associated with H. pylori-positive GU but not with H. pylori-negative GU in Caucasians of Central Russia.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Helicobacter pylori / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Linkage Disequilibrium / genetics
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Quantitative Trait Loci / genetics
  • Russia
  • Stomach Ulcer / genetics*
  • Stomach Ulcer / microbiology*
  • White People / genetics*
  • Young Adult


  • MMP9 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9

Grants and funding

The authors received no specific funding for this work.