Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2021-2022

Pediatrics. 2021 Oct;148(4):e2021053745. doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-053745. Epub 2021 Sep 7.


This technical report accompanies the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the routine use of the influenza vaccine and antiviral medications in the prevention and treatment of influenza in children during the 2021-2022 season. Influenza vaccination is an important intervention to protect vulnerable populations and reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses during circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is expected to continue during this influenza season. In this technical report, we summarize recent influenza seasons, morbidity and mortality in children, vaccine effectiveness, vaccination coverage, and detailed guidance on storage, administration, and implementation. We also provide background on inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccine recommendations, vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding, diagnostic testing, and antiviral medications for treatment and chemoprophylaxis.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Breast Feeding
  • Child
  • Contraindications, Drug
  • Drug Resistance, Viral
  • Drug Storage
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines* / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines* / adverse effects
  • Influenza, Human / drug therapy
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / mortality
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Mass Vaccination
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / adverse effects
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / adverse effects


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated